"History teaches us that men and nations behave wisely once they have exhausted all other alternatives"

Abba Eban
"Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs."

The Report of the U.N. Brundtland Commission, Our Common Future, 1987
"You never change things by fighting the existing reality. To change something, build a new model that makes the existing model obsolete."

Buckminster Fuller, philosopher, futurist and global thinker (1895 - 1983)
SPECIAL SESSION: The food-energy- water nexus (FEW-Nexus) in the urbanization era – challenges for the 21th century
Session resume:

Major current trends drive the world rapidly towards an urban age [1-3]. Urban areas will become the central organization form of nearly all human societies [2, 4]. Their dynamic and intense vitality may transform these areas into centers of prosperity [1]. But cities are not only possible centers of urban prosperity. The density of urban areas concentrates the pressures especially on the FEW resources as if in a ‘burning glass’.

These pressures are caused by current global challenges such as climate change, population growth, growing inequality and resource shortages, which will increasingly strike at the core of both:

  1. Meeting the basic human needs: adequate food, safe and sufficient fresh water, and affordable and clean energy and
  2. the institutional organization of urban human life.
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Dr. Holger Schlör
Forschungszentrum Jülich (Research Centre Jülich)
Jülich, Germany
Holger Schlör studied economics at the University of Heidelberg and went on to complete his PhD in Economics at the Free University in Berlin. His interest in economics and the idea of sustainable development has remained with him throughout his career. He has conducted research at several institutions and is currently working at Forschungszentrum Jülich in the Institute of Energy Research -- Systems Analysis and Technology Evaluation (IEF-STE). His research here focuses on the fields of sustainable development, economics and energy systems analysis.
He was member of the Scientific Committee for Social Sciences and Humanities of the Croatian Science Foundation. He was an invited speaker at the Food-Energy-Water Nexus Conference 2016 of the National Council for Science and the Environment in Washington.
He is a member of the “Sustainable Management” and “Sustainable Assessment” Committees of the Association of German Engineers (VDI) and supporting member of the International Centre for Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES Centre).
Dr. Sandra Venghaus
Forschungszentrum Jülich
Jülich, Germany
Dr. Sandra Venghaus is senior scientist at the Institute for Systems Analysis and Technology Evaluation at the Research Center Juelich, Germany. She received her B.A. in Environmental Science and Public Policy from Harvard University in 2004 and her PhD in Economics from the Leibniz University of Hannover, before she became a senior scientist at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research from 2009 until 2014.
Her current research focuses on the dynamic modelling of complex socio-ecological systems with specific interest in evaluating the impacts of different political courses of action on social and environmental parameters embedded in the broader concept of sustainable development and, specifically, the nexus among food, energy and water resources.

Invited papers (9)
SPECIAL SESSION: Microalgae as a platform for the production of energy, food and products with high value-added
Session resume:

The major problems that humanity faces in the 21st century are water quality issues and energy supply.

The rapid development of the human population and uncontrolled energy consumption has led to the depletion of global energy resources reserves.  

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Prof. Julio Pedraza Garciga
Universidad Central Martha Abreu de Las Villas
Santa Clara, Cuba
Dr. Julio Pedraza Garciga is a full professor at the Center for Studies in Energy and Industrial Processes, University of Sancti Spíritus, Sancti Spíritus, Cuba.
Previously, he worked for 32 years at the Central University "Marta Abreu" of Las Villas, Santa Clara, Cuba, where he was the Executive secretary of the International Conference on Chemistry, organized by the Cuban Society of Chemistry, Director of the Center of Process Analysis, member of the Editorial Board of the scientific journal "Centro Azúcar”, Member of the Ibero american Network of Hydrogen (Ibero-American Program of Science and Technology for Development), Ibero American Coordinator of the Network "New Technologies for the biofuels production", (Ibero-American Program of Science and Technology for Development), Chief of Chemical Engineering Department at Central University "Marta Abreu" of Las Villas. He is author or coauthor of 6 books and of more than 60 articles about the research topics.
His current research focuses on the obtaining biofuels from microalgae in the concept of biorefinery, as well as in the production and purification of biogas using microalgae and bacteria.

No registered papers yet
SPECIAL SESSION: Sustainable Multiphase Reactive Processes
Session resume:

In recent years, it is more and more evident that the civilization expansion, correlated with the global energy consumption, is affecting the climate change. Most of the energy is still being extracted by combusting the fossil fuels, releasing a vast amount of the environmentally dangerous greenhouse gases. The most prominent approach to mid-term emission reduction is the improvement of existing technologies. Such an approach does not require a significant investment in infrastructure and can enable the desired reduction of harmful gases. In the advancement of transport and energy production sectors, there are still technical challenges to be solved, and most are related to physical and chemical phenomena accruing in the combustion chambers. Spray phenomenon is one of the most important among them because of the dispersion of the liquid influences on the overall efficiency of the combustion system. Therefore, the main objective of this special session is to bring together the scientists, researchers, and experts to exchange and share their experiences, new ideas, and research results about all aspects of combustion science, sustainable combustion technologies, and spray related topics: fundamental physical and chemical aspects of traditional and novel fuel sources; reaction kinetics, combustion emissions, pollutants, soot and particulates; IC engine combustion; gas turbine combustion; furnace combustion; coal, biomass, biofuel and waste combustion; multiphase flows and sprays, fuel introduction methods, fuel dispersion, droplet interactions; particle technology, gasification and pyrolysis; new combustion technologies.

Prof. Milan Vujanović
University of Zagreb
Zagreb, Croatia
Milan Vujanović is a researcher and Teamleader of CFD Combustion Research Group of the Power Engineering and Energy Management Chair at Department of Energy, Power Engineering and Environment, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb.
Dr. Vujanović holds PhD in “numerical modelling of multiphase flow in combustion of fuels”. His research is in the areas of modelling and simulation of turbulent combustion, pollution formation, multiphase flows and sprays, and also in the areas of sustainable energy, environmental protection and climate change. He holds lecturers within courses “Combustion and Radiation Modelling”, and “Numerical Methods in Continuum Mechanics”. He has over 40 publications in Scientific Journals, Books and International Conferences Proceedings to his credit.
Dr. Vujanović is a consultant to many industries and to several public authorities. He is a member of the Combustion Institute, member of the European Research Community on Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, and member of the Centre for Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems.
Prof. Mário Costa
Instituto Superior Técnico
Lisboa, Portugal
Mário Costa is a Full Professor in the area of Environment and Energy at the Mechanical Engineering Department of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST). He graduated in Chemical Engineering at University of Coimbra in 1984, obtained his PhD in Mechanical Engineering at Imperial College London in 1992 and his Habilitation in Mechanical Engineering at Technical University of Lisbon in 2009. Currently, he teaches the courses of Thermodynamics, Combustion, Renewables Energies and Integrated Energy Systems. He has supervised more than 100 MSc and Phd students. He has participated in more than 50 national and international projects in the area of Energy and Environment and has (co-)authored 1 book, more than 100 papers in international peer-reviewed journals and more than 150 papers in international conferences. He was the recipient of the Caleb Brett Award of the Institute of Energy in 1991, of the Sugden Award of the British Section of the Combustion Institute in 1991, of the Prémio Científico UTL/Santander Totta in 2010 and of a Menção Honrosa Universidade de Lisboa/Santander in 2016.
Dr. Zvonimir Petranović
University of Zagreb
Zagreb, Croatia
Zvonimir Petranović is a postdoctoral researcher and a member of CFD Combustion Research Group of the Power Engineering and Energy Management Chair at Department of Energy, Power Engineering and Environment, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb.
Dr. Petranović earned his PhD in “numerical modelling of multiphase flows in the combustion of fuels with a focus on the Euler Eulerian approach”. His research activities are in areas of modelling and simulation of nozzle flow, liquid fuel disintegration and evaporation, pollution formation, and various heat and mass transfer and multiphase flows. He is responsible for student seminars and projects in the field of nozzle flow, nozzle flow spray coupling, droplet atomization, and diesel, gasoline and jet engine modelling. He has 25 publications in Scientific Journals, Books and International Conferences Proceedings to his credit.
As a young researcher, he won several awards for his contribution. He is a member of the Combustion Institute, member of the European Research Community on Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, and member of the Centre for Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems.

No registered papers yet
SPECIAL SESSION: Energy, Water and Resource Efficiency for Sustainable Future: Knowledge Development and Transfer
Session resume:

In Dubrovnik, at SDEWES 2017 the session has received a considerable attention, having again three time slots and spanning two conference days and wide geographical coverage of the participants. Many of the presenters will be soon invited to publish extended manuscripts in dedicated Special Issues of journals with a high Impact Factor, among which Applied Energy (IF2016 = 7.182), Energy (IF2016 = 4.520), Energy Conversion and Management (IF2016 = 5.589), Journal of Cleaner Production (IF2016 = 5.715).

Due to the high demand it has been decided to organise this session again in 2018, this time for 3rd SEE SDEWES 2018 in Novi Sad - Serbia. The focus of the session is on research and demonstration in the fields of energy and water efficiency for improving the sustainability in industrial and other activities. Due to the immense importance of knowledge dissemination and transfer, presentations are also invited in the field of knowledge management and especially knowledge transfer. 

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Dr. Petar Sabev Varbanov
Sustainable Process Integration Laboratory – SPIL, NETME Centre, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology - VUT Brno
Brno, Czech Republic
is a Senior Researcher at the Sustainable Process Integration Laboratiry – NETME Centre, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology and at the Centre for Process Systems Engineering & Sustainability, Székesfehérvár – at the Pázmány Péter Catholic University (Budapest), Hungary. He obtained his PhD in Process Integration at a prestigious British University – UMIST, Manchester, with distinction. For performing research on minimising and mitigating Climate Change he was awarded a scholarship from the UK Tyndall Centre. Later he was awarded a prestigious Marie Curie EIF Fellowship and successfully performed research on Optimising the Start-up of Distillation Columns at the Technische Universität Berlin. This was followed by a Marie Curie ERG Fellowship for assisting his integration into the University of Pannonia – Hungary, where he is a Deputy Head of the Centre for Process Integration and Intensification CPI2. His experience covers energy saving, optimisation of energy supply networks, Process Synthesis and Process Operation. His research has been successfully implemented in collaboration with industrial partners: e.g. BP (UK) and MOL (Hungary). He has been contributing to 25 research and consultancy projects (most within the EC funding schemes) and has published more than 70 papers in peer-reviewed journals. He is a co-author of two books and several chapters in books.
He has been the Editor for “Energy – The International Journal” published by Elsevier.
Prof. Jiří Jaromír Klemeš
Brno University of Technology - VUT Brno
Brno, Czech Republic
Head of “Sustainable Process Integration Laboratory – SPIL”, NETME Centre, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology - VUT Brno, Czech Republic and Emeritus Professor at “Centre for Process Systems Engineering and Sustainability”, Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Budapest, Hungary.
Previously the Project Director, Senior Project Officer and Hon Reader at Department of Process Integration at UMIST, The University of Manchester and University of Edinburgh, UK. Founder and a long term Head of the Centre for Process Integration and Intensification – CPI2, University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary. Awarded by the EC with Marie Curies Chair of Excellence (EXC). Track record of managing and coordinating 91 major EC, NATO and UK Know-How projects. Research funding attracted over 21 M€.
Co-Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Cleaner Production. The founder and President for 20 y of PRES (Process Integration for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction) conferences. Chairperson of CAPE Working Party of EFCE, a member of WP on Process Intensification and of the EFCE Sustainability platform. He authored and co-authored nearly 400 papers, h-index reaching 42. A number of books published by Elsevier, Woodhead, McGraw-Hill; Ashgate Publishing Cambridge; Springer; WILEY-VCH; Taylor & Francis).
Several times Distinguished Visiting Professor at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia and University Technology Petronas, Malayisa; Xi’an Jiaotong University; South China University of Technology, Guangzhou and Tianjin University in China; University of Maribor, Slovenia; Brno University of Technology and the Russian Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, Moscow. Doctor Honoris Causa of Kharkiv National University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute” in Ukraine, the University of Maribor in Slovenia, University POLITEHNICA Bucharest, Romania. “Honorary Doctor of Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia”. Awarded with “Honorary Membership of Czech Society of Chemical Engineering", "European Federation of Chemical Engineering (EFCE) Life-Time Achievements Award" and "Pro Universitaire Pannonica" Gold Medal.

Invited papers (8)
SPECIAL SESSION: Recyclability, Recycling and End-of-Waste
Session resume:

To increase the rate of recycling is a central objective in the implementation of effective and environmentally sound waste management systems throughout the world. From an environmental engineer`s perspective recycling includes the substitution of primary resources by secondary resources. In order to make sense from an environmental perspective recycling should reduce environmental impacts of the overall product / service provision system assessed based on the life cycle assessment approach.

The options and quantitative potentials of recycling of the various wastes are very much dependent on the recyclability of goods and the definition of what is to be conceived as “recycled”. More generally the definition of the interface between the waste and the product sphere is a central element in the operative implementation of waste management in the various legislations around the world.

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Dr. Arne M. Ragossnig
RME ecoconsultants e.U.
Vienna, Austria
Since 2013 Arne M. Ragossnig is Managing Director of the Engineering and Consulting Company ecoconsulttants (formerly "UTC").
As of January 2018 Arne Ragossnig is Managing Director of International Solid Waste Association (ISWA) - the leading global network of the waste management industry.
He is lecturer at various Universities. Before that he was Vice Rector, Professor and Head of Research & Development at the Department of Energy and Environmental Management at the University of Applied Science Burgenland. As programme director he was responsible for the master degree programmes "Sustainable Energy Systems" and "Energy and Environmental Management". He is member of the Scientific Advisory Board of various international conferences as well as Associate Editor of the scientific journal Waste Management & Research.
Previous affiliations include a position in industry at VA TECH WABAG as well as a position as Assistant Professor and Deputy Head of Institute at the University of Leoben, Austria.
Arne M. Ragossnig is author and co-author of more than 100 publications including more than 30 peer reviewed and invited publications.
Prof. Daniel Rolph Schneider
FSB, University of Zagreb
Zagreb, Croatia
Dr. sc. Daniel Rolph Schneider is full professor at the Department of Energy, Power
Engineering and Environment at University of Zagreb-Faculty of Mechanical
Engineering and naval Architecture where he has been working from 1993. He was the
Assistant Minister at the Ministry of Environmental Protection of the Republic of
Croatia in the Directorate for Environmental Management, from 2007 to 2009. From
2004 to 2007 he worked at the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund of
Republic of Croatia. His field of work includes energy conversion technologies, waste
management and waste-to- energy systems, renewable energy, and climate change. In his
present position as a university researcher he has more than 24 years of professional
experience in the energy and environment sector.

No registered papers yet
SPECIAL SESSION: Accelerating innovation in the bioeconomy – Bridging the gap from technical development to actual implementation in the markets
Session resume:

Nowadays there are several transformation processes that influence decisions of national and regional stakeholders on the strategic management and utilization of natural resources for the production of materials and chemicals and for the generation of energy. Out of these processes, the bioeconomy, aiming to achieve the highest value added of the available biomass resources, has particularly framed the developments in the biotechnology field.

The surge of the bioeconomy has boosted the biotechnology field in many ways, as new technologies, products and raw materials are nowadays in different stages of development. Yet a major challenge lying ahead is the actual implementation of these innovative technologies, products and raw materials into the existing technical structures in order to have a way into the markets.

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Dr. Alberto Bezama
Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research GmbH
Leipzig, Germany
Alberto Bezama has worked for over 15 years in the areas of “Contaminated sites management”, “Waste Management” and "Cleaner production", and for 10 years in the field of “Sustainability Assessment”. He is a Chemical Engineer from the University of Concepcion (Chile), and carried out his doctoral studies at the Institute for Waste Management and Technology, of the University of Leoben (Austria).
From 2006 to 2010 he worked at the Environmental Sciences Center EULA-Chile of the University of Concepcion, where he was appointed as a tenured Assistant Professor in Environmental Engineering. In Chile he started up and led the working groups on "Solid Waste Management", "Risk Assessment and Management of Contaminated Sites" and "Sustainability assessment" at the EULA Center, providing scientific and technical support to the industry and public sectors.
Since 2012 he is a Researcher at the Department of Bioenergy at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research in Leipzig (Germany), leading the Working Group on “Systems Analysis of the Bioeconomy (SABE),” thus coordinating the Department's work in the bioeconomy field. Moreover, he is the Leader of the Competence Field "Management of the Bioeconomy" in the Leading-Edge Cluster Bioeconomy ( Finally, since 2015 he acts as Deputy to the Head of the Department of Bioenergy.
Main focus of his current research is the development and application of life cycle-based tools to assess the effects of implementing bio-based technologies in a regional perspective, under the framework of the bioeconomy and circular economy strategies.

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SPECIAL SESSION: Industrial applications and IT tools for sustainable future
Session resume:

Nowadays the trend for the production processing industries led to the steady increase. There are a lot of wastes with by-products, energy, water and raw materials is consumed. The special section "Industrial applications and IT tools for sustainable future" originated as a part of a comprehensive worldwide research and solutions, which is designed to develop ecologically sustainable, environmentally friendly, resource-saving industrial applications for processing industries and IT tools which will help to improve it in most sustainable way.

Previously the Session was successfully held at 10th, 11th and 12 SDEWES Conferences where academic and industrial participants from UK, Croatia, Hungary, Italy, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation, Czech Republic and Brazil presented their research.

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Dr. Stanislav Boldyryev
ITMO University
St. Petersburg, Russian Federation
Dr. Stanislav Boldyryev, is an Associate Professor of ITMO University (Russian Federation) and Process Integration and Heat Transfer Enhancement Expert at SDEWES Centre of UNIZAG FSB (Croatia). He graduated National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute” (Kharkiv, Ukraine) in 1999 and defended PhD thesis in 2008. His PhD study was in the field of Process Integration. He started to work at Spivdruzhnist-T Engineering Company where an energy audit and process integration of 22 industrial sites were executed. He has worked with refinery, coke-to chemical, chemical, cement, sugar, food and other industries. Since 2000 he has been working on EU projects: SYNERGY, DEMACSYS, SHERHPA, ECOPHOS, CONNECT, INTHEAT, DISKNET, EFENIS, CARBEN etc. From 2004 he worked at National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute” as an Assistant and Associate Professor. 110 publications have been delivered. During his teaching career he prepared 4 new curricula, 5 teaching guides and more than 30 BSC and MSc students in Ukraine and Croatia. He has more than 10 years’ experience in software development. From 2013 he worked at Chemical Bromine plant as Deputy General Director on Development. In 2014 he got a NEWFELPRO grant, which was financed by Marie Curie Fund and Croatian Government. In 2016 he was a guest editor of Special Issue of Thermal Science Journal. He is a Scientific Advisory Board Member of several International Conferences. In 2017 he founded System Integration Department at Neva-TeploTechnika Engineering Company where, jointly with CALGAVIN and HTRI, he shares the knowledge and experience to industry. His research interests are Process Integration, Process Simulation, Heat Exchangers, Heat Exchangers Networks, Heat Recovery, Total Site Integration, and Heat Transfer Enhancement.

Invited papers (1)
SPECIAL SESSION: Towards sustainability in the built environment
Session resume:

Cities are a composition of networks, buildings and open spaces. Buildings and networks both need huge amounts of energy, water and materials which are key components to the function of cities, and can present different costs and environmental impacts. Buildings have special problems concerning performance assessment, many of them related to energy efficiency, water consumption and materials usage. Although the contribution of energy demand is relevant in buildings compared to the total amount of materials and water usage, improving these systems in a large number of buildings is straightforward, both considering retrofitting, rehabilitation and new constructions. Considerations of sustainability including technical, environmental, economic and social aspects are essential in the built environment design, planning construction, maintenance, rehabilitation, dismantling/disposal, and performance assessment of new and existent buildings. The whole life cycle perspective should also be included in the full framework towards understanding the impacts related to buildings production, use, maintenance, and end-of-life, according to expected performance levels.

The objective of this special session is to identify and address key aspects related to the sustainability in the built environment; from materials, buildings and construction systems, to sustainable regions and smart cities, to promote the development of resilient, competitive and sustainable buildings, cities and regions. Articles approaching these subjects with a solid background and enabling advancement of the area are important additions to the body of knowledge in the field.

Prof. Assed Haddad
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Prof. Assed Haddad is a Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. He holds a Ph.D. in Production Engineering, a M.Sc. in Civil Engineering. Is a Civil and Safety Engineer (Professional Registered Engineer) and also a Juris Doctor. Certified Quality and Reliability Engineer by the American Society for Quality. He was a visiting professor at the University of Florida (Gainesville, USA), in the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (Barcelona, Spain) and at the Universitat Rovira I Virgili (Tarragona, Spain). He is a researcher for the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq, Brazil). Prof. Haddad´s interests and publications focus on life cycle and risk assessment of buildings and urban systems, as well as, sustainability in the construction industry. He has published many papers in journals, book chapters and refereed proceedings. He has also conducted several projects related to these fields.
Prof. Ana Passuello
Porto Alegre, Brazil
Ana Passuello is an assistant professor in the field of buildings and environment at the Interdisciplinary Department of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Brazil), and a member of the Building Innovation Research Unit (NORIE/PPGCI/UFRGS). She holds a Ph.D. at the “Rovira i Virgili” University (URV, Spain), having her thesis received the European Mention and cum laude Honour. She is a researcher of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq, Brazil). Her research interests focus on the sustainability of the building environment, through the application of different decision- making tools. As a result of the work in these areas, she has published two book chapters, 13 international peer-reviewed publications, and presented several conference communications.
Prof. João Lanzinha
Universidade da Beira Interior
Covilhã, Portugal
João Carlos Gonçalves Lanzinha is Assistant Professor at the Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal.
PhD Thesis – “Reabilitação de Edifícios – Metodologia de Diagnóstico e Intervenção” (Building rehabilitation – Methodology for Diagnosis and Intervention), Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal (Nov06).
MsC Thesis – “Propriedades higrotérmicas de materiais de construção” (Hygrothermal properties of building materials), Sciences and Technology Faculty, University of Coimbra, Portugal (Jun98).
Member of the Research Centre C-MADE: Centre of Materials and Building Technologies
Coordinator of LABSED - Laboratório de Saúde na Edificação - UBIMedical / LABSED - Housing Health Lab - UBIMedical
Chair of ICEUBI2017 and member of organizing and scientific committees of international congresses, being author of book and of diverse scientific works published in national and international journals. Organizer of Special Sessions in International Congresses.
Member of Editorial Board of “Open Engineering” (De Gruyter), “Gestão & Gerenciamento” (NPPG/Poli/UFRJ, Brasil), “Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture” (David Publishing, USA) and Scientific Board of “Revista Internacional TechITT”.
Supervision of PhD thesis and Msc dissertations and Member of Scientific Committee of UBI Engineering Faculty
Qualified Expert for REH building certification (Q.E.n.PQ00412) by ADENE – Portuguese Energy Agency, managing body of European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive implementation in Portugal. REH is the Portuguese Regulation of Energy Performance of Residential Buildings.
Research interests: Building Inspection / Retrofit / Rehabilitation, Quality Assessment of Buildings, Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Housing Health.

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Benchmarking the performance of cities across energy, water and environment systems
related metrics presents an opportunity to trigger policy learning, action, and cooperation to bring cities closer to sustainable development.